Specific Cancers

Adrenal Cancer

Overview

Adrenal Glands
Detailed information on the adrenal gland, its anatomy and function

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Abdominal Ultrasound
Abdominal ultrasound is a procedure that uses sound wave technology to assess the organs, structures, and blood flow inside the abdomen.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Abdomen
A CT/CAT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, organs, and blood vessels. CT/CAT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays and are used to assess the organs and tissues for for injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including information on how the procedure is performed
Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. This branch of radiology is often used to help diagnose and treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease, such as thyroid cancer.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Anal Cancer

Overview

Digestive System: An Overview
Detailed information on how the digestive system works, including a full-color, labeled illustration of the digestive system
AIDS-Related Malignancies
People who have AIDS are much more likely to get certain types of cancer than people without the disease.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Prostate/Rectal Sonogram
A sonogram uses ultrasound technology to allow quick visualization of the prostate and related structures from outside the body. It may be used to examine the prostate gland for evidence of cancer.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Cancer FAQs

Frequently Asked Questions About Anal Cancer
Anal cancer is a rare cancer. Most people who get it are between the ages of 50 and 80. Slightly more women than men get anal cancer.

Advanced Reading

Bile Duct Cancer

Overview

Biliary System: Anatomy and Functions
Detailed anatomical description of the biliary system, including a full-color labeled illustration
Biliary Cirrhosis/Bile Duct Cancer
Detailed information on biliary cirrhosis and bile duct cancer, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Ampullary Cancer
Ampullary cancer, or ampullary carcinoma, is a life-threatening cancer that forms in a body part called the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum, where the pancreatic and bile ducts release their secretions into the intestines.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Abdominal Ultrasound
Abdominal ultrasound is a procedure that uses sound wave technology to assess the organs, structures, and blood flow inside the abdomen.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Liver and Biliary Tract
CT/CAT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays and are often used to assess the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts for for injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including information on how the procedure is performed
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure in which x-ray and an endoscope - a long, flexible, lighted tube - are used to assess and treat problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Bladder Cancer

Overview

Bladder Cancer
Detailed information on bladder cancer, including symptoms, types, causes, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Cystoscopy for Women
Cytoscopy is a procedure in which a long, lighted scope is used to examine the urinary tract, bladder, urethra, and openings to the ureters and is used when problems with the urinary tract are suspected.
Intravenous Pyelogram
An intravenous pyelogram is a procedure that uses a combination of contrast dyes and X-rays to look for obstructions in the blood flow of the kidneys or poor kidney function.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan
Detailed information on computed tomography scans, also called CT scan or CAT scan, including information on how the procedure is performed
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including information on how the procedure is performed

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Bone Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of the Bone
A typical bone in your body contains three types of tissue—a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like inner tissue, and smooth tissue at the ends.
Chondrosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur, arm, pelvis, knee, and spine.
Ewing Sarcoma in Adults
Ewing sarcoma can occur in any bone, but is most often found in the extremities and can involve muscle and the soft tissues around the tumor site.
Multiple Myeloma
Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain white blood cells called plasma cells.
Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma usually affects the long bones around the knee. It occurs most often in children, adolescents, and young adults.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

X-rays of the Extremities
This procedure is often used as the first step in diagnosing injuries of the extremities, but may also be used to evaluate other problems involving the bones and/or soft tissues.
X-rays of the Spine, Neck, or Back
This procedure may be used to diagnose back or neck pain, fractures or broken bones, arthritis, degeneration of the disks, tumors, or other problems.
Bone Scan
A bone scan is used to examine the various bones of the skeleton to identify areas of physical and chemical changes in bone.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Bones
A CT scan shows detailed images of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissues
Magnetic resonance imaging uses a combination of a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of structures within the body.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Spine and Brain
MRI may be used to examine the brain and/or spinal cord for injuries or the presence of structural abnormalities or certain other conditions, including tumors or aneurysms.
Bone Biopsy
A bone biopsy is a procedure in which bone samples are removed to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Spine
A CT scan of the spine may be performed to assess the spine for a herniated disk, tumors and other lesions, the extent of injuries, structural anomalies such as spina bifida, blood vessel malformations, or other conditions.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Cancer FAQs

Brain and Central Nervous Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of the Brain
The brain is an important organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, respiration, temperature, hunger, and every process that regulates your body.
Brain Tumors
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can either originate in the brain itself or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain.
Basics of Brain Tumors
Brain tumors form in one of two ways: A primary brain tumor starts with an abnormal brain cell and grows in the brain, and a metastatic tumor starts with an abnormal cell from another organ that makes its way into the brain, stays there, and multiplies to form a tumor made of that kind of cell.
Skull Base Chordoma
A chordoma is a form of bone cancer that can occur anywhere along the length of the spine, from the base of the skull to the lower back.
Craniopharyngioma
A craniopharyngioma is a benign tumor that is found near the pituitary gland, a structure in the brain that controls the release of many hormones in the body.
Rathke Cleft Cysts
Rathke cleft cysts are fairly rare. They make up less than 1 percent of all tissue masses that start in the brain.
Paranasal Sinus Tumors
A paranasal sinus tumor is a cancer that has grown inside your sinuses, the open spaces behind your nose.
Olfactory Neuroblastoma
An olfactory neuroblastoma often happens on the roof of the nasal cavity. It involves the cribiform plate, which is a bone between the eyes and located deep in the skull.
Astrocytoma
An astrocytoma is a type of brain tumor that develops in astrocytes, the star-shaped cells in the brain that hold nerve cells in place. Astrocytomas are most common in middle-aged men, but they can occur in children, too.
Skull Base Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare type of cancer that starts in skeletal muscle cells, the muscles that control all of your voluntary muscle movements.
Am I At Risk for a Brain Tumor?
Doctors do not know exactly what causes a brain tumor, although certain factors appear to raise your risk: exposure to radiation or pesticides, an impaired immune system, and a family history of brain tumors.
Oligodendroglioma
Oligodendrogliomas are uncommon brain tumors. They make up about 3 percent of all brain tumors. They are usually found in men in their mid-30s to mid-40s, but they can develop at any age, including during childhood.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

X-rays of the Skull
X-rays of the skull may be performed to diagnose fractures of the bones of the skull, birth defects, tumors, and certain disorders that cause bone defects of the skull. Skull X-rays may also be used to evaluate the nasal sinuses and detect calcifications within the brain.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Brain
CT scans of the brain can provide detailed information about brain tissue and brain structures than standard x-rays of the head, thus providing more information related to injuries and/or diseases of the brain.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Spine
A CT scan of the spine may be performed to assess the spine for a herniated disk, tumors and other lesions, the extent of injuries, structural anomalies such as spina bifida, blood vessel malformations, or other conditions.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Spine and Brain
MRI may be used to examine the brain and/or spinal cord for injuries or the presence of structural abnormalities or certain other conditions, including tumors or aneurysms.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a specialized radiology procedure used to examine various body tissues to identify certain conditions. PET may also be used to follow the progress of the treatment of certain conditions.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
The EEG is used to evaluate several types of brain disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, certain psychoses, and certain sleep disorders.
Craniotomy
A craniotomy is the surgical removal of part of the bone from the skull to expose the brain.
I've Just Been Told I Have a Brain Tumor
It’s OK to feel overwhelmed and afraid. But you shouldn’t let those feelings stop you from finding out as much as you can about your cancer and about the options you have.
Understanding Your Grade of Brain Tumor
Before your doctor can recommend a treatment plan, he or she needs to know the grade of the cancer. The grade tells your doctor how malignant the tumor is and how it might respond to treatment.
Myelogram
A myelogram, also known as myelography, is a procedure that combines the use of dye with x-rays or CT scans to assess the spinal cord, subarachnoid space, or other structures for abnormalities, particularly when another type of examination, such as a standard x-ray, is inconclusive.

Deciding on Treatment

What to Know About Chemotherapy for Brain Tumors
Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. The drugs attack and kill cells that divide rapidly. Some of these rapidly dividing cells are cancer, but others are normal cells in the body.
What to Know About Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors
Doctors give radiation therapy in one of these two ways: from a machine outside the body or from small radioactive pellets placed inside the area with cancer.
Brachytherapy
Brachytherapy is radiation treatment that is given inside the patient, as close to the cancer as possible. The radiation is delivered to the body site with radioactive isotopes inside wires, seeds, or rods. These devices are called implants.
Surgery For Cancer Treatment
One type of surgery for cancer is curative. This procedure removes the cancerous tumor or growth from the body. Surgeons use curative surgery when the cancerous tumor is in one specific area of the body. This type of treatment is often considered the primary treatment, but other types of cancer treatments, such as radiation, may be used before or after the surgery.
Targeted Therapy for Brain Tumors
Certain targeted therapies use various molecules to eliminate or reduce tumor cells or block their destructive behavior. Most are still in the research stages.

Managing Side Effects

Tell Your Health Care Team How You Feel During Treatment for a Brain Tumor
Let your doctor and nurse know if you are experiencing any side effects or discomfort. Make sure you tell your doctor or nurse how these problems affect your day-to-day life.
Do What You Can to Ease Side Effects of Treatment for a Brain Tumor
Your treatment may cause side effects such as anemia, loss of appetite, and hair loss. Here are ideas on how to ease these and other discomforts.
Coping with the Cognitive Effects of Brain Tumors
Brain tumors may affect your cognition, which is your ability to think, reason, and remember. Many people with brain tumors have problems with concentration, language skills, and memory, as well.
General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.
Support for a Loved One with a Brain Tumor
One way to reach out is to provide emotional support or help your loved one find an appropriate source of social support. Many people who have brain tumors find it helpful to talk to others who have been through a similar diagnosis and treatment program.
Rehabilitation for Children with Brain Tumors
After brain tumor treatment, it’s normal for a child to have after-effects. For instance, your child may have trouble talking, walking normally, or swallowing. Rehabilitation therapy can lessen these problems and help your child turn to normal activities, such as attending school.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Advanced Reading

Breast Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of the Breasts
Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.
General Information About Breast Cancer
Ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease are several types of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Statistics
Breast cancer ranks second among cancer deaths in women after lung cancer.
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
Factors that appear to raise a woman's risk for breast cancer include advancing age, family history, benign breast conditions, and a late menopause.
Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer
Early breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may cause no symptoms at all.

Genetics and Breast Cancer

Genetics of Breast Cancer
Detailed information on the genetics of breast cancer, including information on hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome, brca1, brca2, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
People with this syndrome have dark moles around the mouth, nose, and eyes, as well as multiple polyps in the intestines.
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome raises the risk for breast cancer and many other types of cancer.
Topic Index - Breast Health
Detailed information on breast health, anatomy of the breast, breast development, breast cancer prevention, common breast conditions, and breast cancer in males and females
Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T)
The risk for breast cancer may be increased for women who carry the A-T gene. Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare childhood disease that affects the nervous system and other body systems.
About Breast Cancer in Men
Breast cancer in men is rare—less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas occur in men.
Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1/BRCA2)
A woman with this syndrome may develop breast cancer before age 50 and is at higher risk for developing cancer in both breasts or in both the breasts and ovaries.

Male Breast Cancer

About Breast Cancer in Men
Breast cancer in men is rare—less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas occur in men.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?
It is important to remember that a lump or other changes in the breast, or an abnormal area on a mammogram, may be caused by cancer or by other, less serious problems.
Mammogram Procedure
A mammogram is an X-ray examination of the breast amd is used to detect and diagnose breast disease in women.
Frequently Asked Questions: Mammograms
Timing your mammogram when your breasts are not tender is important. In premenopausal women, this is usually one week after a menstrual period.
Breast Biopsy
A breast biopsy is a procedure in which samples of breast tissue are removed with a special biopsy needle or during surgery to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A breast MRI is a procedure in which large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer are used to take detailed pictures of the breast in order to search for abnormalities that may signal the presence of cancer.
Breast Scan
A breast scan is a procedure in which nuclear radiology is used to assess and diagnose various conditions, such as tumors, abscesses, hematomas, organ enlargement, and cysts, as well as organ function and blood flow to the tissue.
Breast Ultrasound
Ultrasound, or sound wave technology is used to examine breast tissue. It may also be used to assess blood flow to areas inside the breasts.
Stages of Breast Cancer
When breast cancer is diagnosed, your doctor will order tests to find out if the cancer has spread from the breast to other parts of the body. This is called staging and is an important step toward planning a treatment program.

Deciding on Treatment

Treatment Introduction

What to Know About Your Treatment Choices for Breast Cancer
The good news is that breast cancer can be treated successfully. Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or any combination of these. Here's a closer look at each.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Treatment
Your oncologist will determine how long and how often you will have chemotherapy treatments. Chemotherapy can be administered intravenously or by pill, and is usually a combination of drugs.

Radiation

Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment
Radiation therapy is a process that precisely sends high levels of radiation directly to the cancer cells. Radiation done after surgery can kill cancer cells that may not be seen during surgery.

Surgery

Surgery for Breast Cancer Treatment
Surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible is the primary treatment for breast cancer. Today, women have many surgical options and choices.
Breast-Conserving Surgery
A lumpectomy is a type of breast-conserving surgery in which a cancerous lump and a portion of the breast tissue around the cancerous lump are removed, leaving the breast intact.
Mastectomy
A mastectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or a portion of a breast is removed as a part of a treatment plan for breast cancer.
Breast Reconstruction
Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast.
Lymphedema After a Mastectomy
Whenever the normal drainage pattern in the lymph nodes is disturbed or damaged—often during surgery to remove the lymph nodes—the arm may swell. This swelling, caused by too much fluid, is called lymphedema.
Post-Mastectomy Prosthesis
A prosthesis can be worn against the skin, inside the pocket of a mastectomy bra, or attached to the chest wall. Prosthetic devices are designed to look feminine and be comfortable.

Hormone Therapy

About Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen has been used to treat both advanced and early stage breast cancer. More recently, tamoxifen is being used as an additional therapy following primary treatment for early stage breast cancer.
About Taxol
Taxol, or paclitaxel, is a drug used for treating certain women who have advanced breast or ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel is a compound that is extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree.

Other Treatments

Other Treatments for Breast Cancer
Other treatments for breast cancer include hormone therapy, used to prevent the growth, spread, and recurrence of the cancer, adjuvant therapy, and biological therapy.

Clinical Trials

About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.
National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP)
Detailed information on breast cancer clinical trials, including the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project
Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)
BCPT was a clinical trial that studied tamoxifen as a prevention therapy for those at high risk for breast cancer. Data showed the results of tamoxifen treatment to be "highly significant," with a 49 percent reduction in the number of invasive breast cancers seen across all age groups.
Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR)
STAR was a clinical trial of the drug raloxifene that included more than 19,000 postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer. The results showed that raloxifene worked as well as tamoxifen at reducing breast cancer risk.

Follow-Up

Sexuality Issues for Women Being Treated for Cancer
Treatment for cancer can cause many changes that may affect your sexuality. It can also change the physical or emotional closeness you share with another person. Different treatments can cause different physical and psychological changes that can affect how you feel, look, and function. These changes may be temporary, or they may last a long time.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Prevention and Screening

Breast Health: Three-Step Plan for Preventive Care
To monitor your breast health, you should do a monthly breast self-exam, get a year clinical exam, and get mammograms as directed by your doctor.
How to Perform a Breast Self-Examination (BSE)
By doing BSE regularly, you get to know how your breasts normally feel so that you are more apt to detect any change.
Solving the Breast Cancer Puzzle
Investigators report headway against breast cancer, the disease that worries women more than any other.
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
Factors that appear to raise a woman's risk for breast cancer include advancing age, family history, benign breast conditions, and a late menopause.
Hope on the Horizon for Breast Cancer
In recent years, researchers have discovered new and better ways to detect and treat breast cancer—and to keep it from coming back.
Myths About What Causes Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is NOT caused by antiperspirants or deodorants, breast implants, or living near electromagnetic fields.

Advanced Reading

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary

Managing Side Effects

Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Cervical Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area
The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.
Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer develops from abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix that spread deeper or to other tissues or organs. This type of cancer occurs most often in women older than 40.
Are You At Risk for Cervical Cancer?
One important way to reduce your risk is by getting regular Pap tests. Another is doing what you can to prevent high-risk HPV.
AIDS-Related Malignancies
People who have AIDS are much more likely to get certain types of cancer than people without the disease.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Diagnostic Procedures for Cancer: Overview
Detailed information on the most common diagnostic procedures for cancer
How Does Your Doctor Know You Have Cervical Cancer?
Many women don’t have symptoms of cervical cancer. Sometimes your doctor may first see signs of cancer during a pelvic exam or a Pap test.
Pap Test
A Pap test is a screening test to collect and microscopically examine cells taken from the cervix.
Cervical Biopsy
A cervical biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue from the cervix to test for abnormal or precancerous conditions, or cervical cancer.
Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) uses a wire loop heated by electric current to remove cells and tissue as part of the diagnosis and treatment for abnormal or cancerous conditions in a woman’s lower genital tract.
Colposcopy
Colposcopy is a procedure that uses an instrument with a magnifying lens and a light, called a colposcope, to examine the cervix (opening to the uterus) and vagina for abnormalities.
Grading and Staging of Cancer
Grading and staging cancer helps determine the best treatment.

Deciding on Treatment

Chemotherapy
Detailed information on chemotherapy for treatment of gynecological cancers
Radiation Therapy
Radiation is often used to treat prostate cancer that is still confined to the prostate gland, or has spread only to nearby tissue.
Surgery
Detailed information the most common types of surgery to treat cancer, including biopsy, endoscopy, laparoscopy, laparotomy, laser surgery, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, and excisional surgery
Hysterectomy
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Different portions of the uterus, as well as other organs, may be removed at the same time.
Hormone Therapy
Detailed information on hormone therapy as one type of cancer treatment
Immunotherapy/Biological Therapy
Detailed information on biological therapy, also called immunotherapy, biological response modifier therapy, or biotherapy
About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Prevention and Screening

How Can You Prevent Cervical Cancer?
Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable types of cancer because you can control the risk factors. A screening test is available, as is a vaccine for girls and young women.
The Facts on Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of more than 100 kinds of viruses. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States.
The Facts on Chlamydia
Chlamydia is the most frequently reported infectious disease in the United States. Anyone who has sex is at risk for chlamydia.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Women suffer more frequent and severe symptoms from STDs. Some STDs can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which can lead to both infertility and ectopic pregnancy.

Advanced Reading

Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area
The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.
Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer develops from abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix that spread deeper or to other tissues or organs. This type of cancer occurs most often in women older than 40.
Are You At Risk for Cervical Cancer?
One important way to reduce your risk is by getting regular Pap tests. Another is doing what you can to prevent high-risk HPV.

Colorectal Cancer

Overview

Digestive System: An Overview
Detailed information on how the digestive system works, including a full-color, labeled illustration of the digestive system
Colorectal Cancer
Most people who have colorectal cancer are older than 50. This type of cancer is also associated with a diet high in fat and calories and low in fiber.
Am I At Risk for Colorectal Cancer?
Some risk factors are out of a person's control, such as his or her age or family history. However, some risk factors — like diet and exercise — are factors a person can control.
What Are the Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer?
Symptoms include a change in bowel habits; bright red or very dark blood in the stool; stools that are thinner than usual; stools that appear slimy or that have a mucous film on them; persistent gas pains, bloating, fullness, and/or cramps; unexplained weight loss; constant tiredness; vomiting
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)
FAP is a syndrome characterized by a large number of benign polyps in the colon and rectum. Without treatment, a person with FAP has a nearly 100 percent risk of colorectal cancer.
Other Colorectal Cancer Syndromes
Several rare syndromes raise the risk for colorectal cancer. These disorders include Turcot syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis coli, and MYH-associated polyposis.
Can I Get Checked for Colorectal Cancer Before I Have Symptoms?
People who have any colorectal cancer risk factors should talk to their doctor or nurse about when they should start checking for colorectal cancer and what tests they should have done.
Carcinoid Tumor
Carcinoid tumor is a rare type of tumor that grows slowly.
Ovarian Cancer as Part of Lynch Syndrome
A woman with this type of hereditary colon cancer is at increased risk for ovarian cancer.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Digestive Diagnostic Procedures
Detailed information on the most common procedures used to diagnosis digestive disorders
How Your Health Care Provider Uses Biopsies to Make a Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer
If a biopsy shows cancer is present, further tests will most likely be recommended to check if the tumor has spread. These tests include a CT scan of the abdomen and liver MRI scans, or ultrasound, to check if the tumor has spread. Certain blood tests may also be conducted.
Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Sigmoidoscopy
A sigmoidoscopy is a procedure that allows the physician to examine the lower one-third of the large intestine and is helpful in identifying the causes of diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation, abnormal growths, and bleeding.
Colonoscopy
A colonoscopy uses a small camera to examine the inside of the colon. It is typically used to screen for colon cancer, and to asses other injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Barium Enema
A barium enema is used to highlight damage or abnormalities in the colon and rectum by creating greater areas of contrast in x-ray film.

Deciding on Treatment

Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. These drugs may be given by mouth, by injection, or a combination of both.

Radiation

Goal of Radiation Therapy for Colorectal Cancer
Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, is a way to treat colorectal cancer. The goal of radiation therapy is to kill cancer cells by directing strong x-rays at the site of the tumor.

Surgery

Laparoscopy: Another Surgical Option for Colorectal Cancer
An advantage of laparoscopic surgery is that it causes less post-operative pain than open surgery, because the incision is smaller.

Managing Side Effects

Do What You Can to Ease Side Effects of Treatment and Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer
As it is difficult to keep healthy cells safe while trying to destroy cancer cells, most cancer treatments have side effects.
General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Advanced Reading

Endometrial Cancer

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Diagnostic Procedures for Cancer: Overview
Detailed information on the most common diagnostic procedures for cancer
Endometrial Biopsy
An endometrial biopsy is a procedure performed to obtain a small tissue sample from the lining of the uterus.
Dilation and Curettage (D and C)
A dilation and curettage procedure, also called a D and C, is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated so that the cervical canal and uterine lining can be scraped with a spoon-shaped instrument to remove abnormal tissues.
Pelvic Ultrasound
Ultrasound, or sound wave technology, is used to examine the organs and structures in the female pelvis.
Hysteroscopy
Hysteroscopy is the visual examination of the canal of the cervix and interior of the uterus using a thin, lighted, flexible tube called a hysteroscope.
Grading and Staging of Cancer
Grading and staging cancer helps determine the best treatment.

Deciding on Treatment

Chemotherapy
Detailed information on chemotherapy for treatment of gynecological cancers
Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy
Surgery
Detailed information the most common types of surgery to treat cancer, including biopsy, endoscopy, laparoscopy, laparotomy, laser surgery, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, and excisional surgery
Hysterectomy
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Different portions of the uterus, as well as other organs, may be removed at the same time.
Hormone Therapy
Detailed information on hormone therapy as one type of cancer treatment
Immunotherapy/Biological Therapy
Detailed information on biological therapy, also called immunotherapy, biological response modifier therapy, or biotherapy
Hormone Therapy After Endometrial Carcinoma
Because endometrial carcinoma is thought to be an estrogen-linked cancer, the fear is that the estrogen used in HRT therapy may drive up the risk of an endometrial cancer recurrence.
About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Esophageal Cancer

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Chest X-ray
A chest X-ray is used to examine the chest and the lungs and other organs and structures located in the chest.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic procedure used to diagnose structural or functional abnormalities of the esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum.
Upper Gastrointestinal Series
An upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) is an x-ray examination of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Abdomen
A CT/CAT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, organs, and blood vessels. CT/CAT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays and are used to assess the organs and tissues for for injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including information on how the procedure is performed

Radiation

Laser Therapy For Cancer Treatment
Laser therapy can be used to cut a very tiny area to remove very small cancers without damaging surrounding tissue. Lasers also are used to apply heat to tumors in order to shrink them and are sometimes used with drugs that are activated by laser light to kill cancer cells.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.
Nutrition for Esophageal Cancer Treatment
Cancer of the esophagus can narrow your esophagus, making it difficult or painful to swallow and take in the nutrition you need. You can get help to overcome this from an important member of your treatment team: the nutrition specialist.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Ewing Sarcoma

Overview

Ewing Sarcoma in Adults
Ewing sarcoma can occur in any bone, but is most often found in the extremities and can involve muscle and the soft tissues around the tumor site.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

X-rays of the Extremities
This procedure is often used as the first step in diagnosing injuries of the extremities, but may also be used to evaluate other problems involving the bones and/or soft tissues.
X-rays of the Spine, Neck, or Back
This procedure may be used to diagnose back or neck pain, fractures or broken bones, arthritis, degeneration of the disks, tumors, or other problems.
Bone Scan
A bone scan is used to examine the various bones of the skeleton to identify areas of physical and chemical changes in bone.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Bones
A CT scan shows detailed images of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissues
Magnetic resonance imaging uses a combination of a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of structures within the body.
Bone Biopsy
A bone biopsy is a procedure in which bone samples are removed to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Eye Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of the Eye
The structures of the eye include the cornea, iris, pupil, macula, retina, and the optic nerve.

Cancer FAQs

Advanced Reading

Gallbladder Cancer

Overview

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Abdominal Ultrasound
Abdominal ultrasound is a procedure that uses sound wave technology to assess the organs, structures, and blood flow inside the abdomen.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Liver and Biliary Tract
CT/CAT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays and are often used to assess the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts for for injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including information on how the procedure is performed
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure in which x-ray and an endoscope - a long, flexible, lighted tube - are used to assess and treat problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas.
Gallbladder Scan
A gallbladder scan - also known as a liver-billiary scan - uses nuclear radiology to assess the function and structure of the gallbladder and surrounding organs.

Deciding on Treatment

Radiation Therapy for Gallbladder Cancer
Radiation uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from multiplying. It can be used after surgery, to kill any cancer that is too small to see, or on inoperable cancers to prevent their spread.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Head and Neck Cancer

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissues
Magnetic resonance imaging uses a combination of a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of structures within the body.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan
Detailed information on computed tomography scans, also called CT scan or CAT scan, including information on how the procedure is performed
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
PET is a type of nuclear medicine procedure that measures metabolic activity of the cells of body tissues. Used mostly in patients with brain or heart conditions and cancer, PET helps to visualize the biochemical changes taking place in the body.
Bone Scan
A bone scan is used to examine the various bones of the skeleton to identify areas of physical and chemical changes in bone.
X-rays of the Spine, Neck, or Back
This procedure may be used to diagnose back or neck pain, fractures or broken bones, arthritis, degeneration of the disks, tumors, or other problems.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Prevention and Screening

Oral Cancer
Ninety percent of oral cancer cases are caused by tobacco use. Oral cancer can affect the lips, teeth, gums, and lining of the mouth.
Oral Cancer and Tobacco
All tobacco products, from cigarettes to snuff, contain toxins, carcinogens, and nicotine, an addictive substance.

Advanced Reading

Hodgkin Disease

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan
Detailed information on computed tomography scans, also called CT scan or CAT scan, including information on how the procedure is performed
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including information on how the procedure is performed
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
PET is a type of nuclear medicine procedure that measures metabolic activity of the cells of body tissues. Used mostly in patients with brain or heart conditions and cancer, PET helps to visualize the biochemical changes taking place in the body.

Deciding on Treatment

Bone Marrow Transplantation
Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects
Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Kaposi's Sarcoma

Overview

Am I at Risk for Kaposi Sarcoma?
Certain factors can make one person more likely to get Kaposi sarcoma than another person. These are called risk factors.
Anatomy of the Skin
The skin is the body's largest organ. It serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.
AIDS-Related Malignancies
People who have AIDS are much more likely to get certain types of cancer than people without the disease.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Chest X-ray
A chest X-ray is used to examine the chest and the lungs and other organs and structures located in the chest.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Chest
CT/CAT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays and are often used to assess the organs of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and esophagus, for injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Bronchoscopy
A brochosopy is a procedure in which a long, lighted scope is inserted into the lungs in order to examine the airways of the lungs and to assess lung function.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic procedure used to diagnose structural or functional abnormalities of the esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum.
Colonoscopy
A colonoscopy uses a small camera to examine the inside of the colon. It is typically used to screen for colon cancer, and to asses other injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Understanding Your Type of Kaposi Sarcoma
It's important to know which type you have, because not all types of KS are related to HIV and AIDS.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Neutropenia: A Vulnerable Time for Infections
Neutropenia is a condition in which the body has a very low number of white blood cells. Because white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi, neutropenia increases the risk for infections.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nutritional Management of Loss of Appetite During Cancer Treatment
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
Nutritional Management of Taste Alterations During Cancer Treatment
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Kidney Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of the Urinary System
Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
Kidney Cancer
Detailed information on renal cell cancer, the most common type of kidney cancer, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Antegrade Pyelogram
An antegrade pyelogram is a procedure that uses a combination of contrast dye and X-rays to diagnose obstructions and other problems in the upper urinary tract.
Abdominal Ultrasound
Abdominal ultrasound is a procedure that uses sound wave technology to assess the organs, structures, and blood flow inside the abdomen.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Kidney
CT/CAT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays and are often used to assess the kidneys for injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Intravenous Pyelogram
An intravenous pyelogram is a procedure that uses a combination of contrast dyes and X-rays to look for obstructions in the blood flow of the kidneys or poor kidney function.
Kidney Biopsy
A kidney biopsy is a procedure in which tissue samples are removed with a special needle to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present, or to determine how well the kidney is working.
Kidney Scan
A kidney scan uses nuclear radiology to assess the function and structure of the kidneys, as well as blood flow to the kidney tissue.
Kidney Ultrasound
An ultrasound of the kidney uses An ultrasound of the kidney is a procedure in which sound wave technology is used to assess the size, shape, and location of the kidneys in order to detect injuries, abnormalities or disease.
Renal Angiogram
A renal angiogram, also called an arteriogram, is an x-ray image of the blood vessels of the kidneys.

Other Treatments

Biologic Therapy for Kidney Cancer
Biologic (or biological) therapy is a type of cancer treatment that focuses on strengthening your body's own immune system rather than destroying the cancer cells with medication.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Laryngeal Cancer

Overview

Ear, Nose, and Throat Facts
The ear consists of three areas—the outer, middle, and inner ear. The nose is the organ of smell and is part of the peripheral nervous system. The throat is a ring-like muscular tube that acts as the passageway for air, food, and liquid.
Otolaryngology
Otolaryngology is the medical specialty that focuses on medical and surgical treatment for patients who have disorders of the ear, nose, throat, and related structures.
Laryngeal Cancer (Cancer of the Larynx)
Detailed information on laryngeal cancer (cancer of the larynx), including symptoms, cause, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy

Deciding on Treatment

Combination Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer
When you have advanced laryngeal cancer, your treatment options include some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation treatment.
Targeted Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer
The most widely used form of immunotherapy to treat cancer is called monoclonal antibodies. This immunotherapy uses antibody proteins that bind to a specific target, such as cancer cells, and leave most healthy tissues alone.
Surgery for Laryngeal Cancer
Laryngectomy can be done in two ways: total laryngectomy to remove the entire larynx and partial laryngectomy to remove part of it.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Leukemia - General

Overview

Facts About Blood
Detailed information on blood, including components of blood, functions of blood cells and common hematology tests
Overview of Leukemias
Detailed overview of leukemia, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia
Eosinophilic leukemia is a disorder in which too many white blood cells, known as eosinophils, are produced in the blood, bone marrow, and other tissues of the body.
AIDS-Related Lymphoma in Children
AIDS-related lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops in people with AIDS. AIDS is a disease that weakens the immune system and raises the risk for chronic illnesses such as cancer.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Bone Marrow Biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy involves removing tissue from the red bone marrow to be sent to the lab for microscopic examination.
Lumbar Puncture (LP)
A lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure used to remove a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for examination and diagnosis of various disorders.

Chemotherapy

Other Treatments

Bone Marrow Transplantation
Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Leukemia - Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

Overview

Overview of Leukemias
Detailed overview of leukemia, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Detailed information on acute lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Bone Marrow Biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy involves removing tissue from the red bone marrow to be sent to the lab for microscopic examination.
Lumbar Puncture (LP)
A lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure used to remove a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for examination and diagnosis of various disorders.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Leukemia - Acute Myelocytic (AML)

Overview

Overview of Leukemias
Detailed overview of leukemia, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Detailed information on acute myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Bone Marrow Biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy involves removing tissue from the red bone marrow to be sent to the lab for microscopic examination.
Lumbar Puncture (LP)
A lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure used to remove a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for examination and diagnosis of various disorders.

Other Treatments

Bone Marrow Transplantation
Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Advanced Reading

Leukemia - Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

Overview

Overview of Leukemias
Detailed overview of leukemia, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Detailed information on chronic lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Bone Marrow Biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy involves removing tissue from the red bone marrow to be sent to the lab for microscopic examination.
Lumbar Puncture (LP)
A lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure used to remove a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for examination and diagnosis of various disorders.

Chemotherapy

Overview of Leukemias
Detailed overview of leukemia, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

Other Treatments

Bone Marrow Transplantation
Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Leukemia - Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

Overview

Overview of Leukemias
Detailed overview of leukemia, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Detailed information on chronic myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Bone Marrow Biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy involves removing tissue from the red bone marrow to be sent to the lab for microscopic examination.
Lumbar Puncture (LP)
A lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure used to remove a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for examination and diagnosis of various disorders.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Liver Cancer

Overview

Liver: Anatomy and Functions
Detailed anatomical description of human liver, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
Liver Tumors
Detailed information on liver tumors, including types, symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment
Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease
Detailed information on alcohol induced liver disease, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Ampullary Cancer
Ampullary cancer, or ampullary carcinoma, is a life-threatening cancer that forms in a body part called the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum, where the pancreatic and bile ducts release their secretions into the intestines.
Carcinoid Tumor
Carcinoid tumor is a rare type of tumor that grows slowly.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Common Liver Function Tests
Detailed information on the most common liver function tests, including serum bilirubin test, serum albumin test, serum alkaline phosphatase test, serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time test, alanine transaminase test, aspartate transaminase test, gamm
Abdominal Ultrasound
Abdominal ultrasound is a procedure that uses sound wave technology to assess the organs, structures, and blood flow inside the abdomen.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Liver and Biliary Tract
CT/CAT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays and are often used to assess the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts for for injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Liver Biopsy
A liver biopsy is a procedure in which tissue samples from the liver are removed for examination under a microscope to look for signs of damage or disease. It is used to diagnose many liver conditions.
Liver Scan
A liver scan - also known as a liver-spleen scan - uses nuclear radiology to assess the function and structure of the liver and surrounding organs. It may also be used to assess the progress of treatment for certain conditions.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Lung Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of the Respiratory System
The respiratory system includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs.
Lung Cancer
Detailed information on lung cancer, lung cancer symptom, lung cancer treatment, lung cancer sign, lung cancer medication, malignant lung tumor, lung cancer cause, benign lung tumor, lung cancer risk factor, lung cancer prevention
Smoking and Respiratory Diseases
Smoking is directly responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases (87 percent), emphysema cases, and chronic bronchitis cases.
The Genetics of Lung Cancer
Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking, but not everyone who smokes will develop lung cancer. Researchers believe that normal genetic variations, known as polymorphisms, may make some people more likely to develop lung cancer if they smoke.
AIDS-Related Malignancies
People who have AIDS are much more likely to get certain types of cancer than people without the disease.
Carcinoid Tumor
Carcinoid tumor is a rare type of tumor that grows slowly.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Bronchoscopy
A brochosopy is a procedure in which a long, lighted scope is inserted into the lungs in order to examine the airways of the lungs and to assess lung function.
Chest Ultrasound
Chest ultrasound is a procedure in which sound wave technology is used alone, or along with other types of diagnostic methods, to examine the organs and structures of the chest.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Chest
CT/CAT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays and are often used to assess the organs of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and esophagus, for injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Lung Biopsy
A lung biopsy is a procedure in which tissue samples are removed with a special needle to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
Pleural Biopsy
A pleural biopsy is a procedure in which a sample of the pleura (the membrane that surrounds the lungs) is removed with a special biopsy needle or during surgery to determine if disease, infection, or cancer is present.
Mediastinoscopy
A mediastinoscopy is a surgical procedure performed to examine the mediastinum - the space behind the sternum (breastbone) in the middle of the chest that separates the two lungs.
Thoracentesis
Thoracentesis is a procedure in which a needle is inserted through the back of the chest wall to remove fluid or air from between the lungs and the interior chest wall.
Tests That Help Evaluate Lung Cancer
Treatment for lung cancer usually begins a few weeks after diagnosis. This gives patients time to talk with their doctor about treatment choices, to get a second opinion, to decide about treatment, and to prepare themselves and their loved ones.
Advances in Early Detection of Lung Cancer
The lack of effective methods for early detection of lung cancer is one of the reasons that most people diagnosed with lung cancer have advanced disease, and fewer than fifteen percent of these patients will survive more than five years.

Surgery

Lobectomy
A lobectomy is a surgical procedure that removes one of the lobes of the lungs.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Prevention and Screening

Am I At Risk for Lung Cancer?
The American Cancer Society estimates that 87 percent of lung cancer cases are related to smoking. However, a small percentage of people who get lung cancer do not have a history of smoking or being around secondhand smoke. So, not all smokers get lung cancer and not all lung cancer patients were smokers.
Can I Get Checked for Lung Cancer Before I Have Symptoms?
Lung cancer is difficult to find in its early stages. To date, there is no standard screening process to find early stage lung cancer. Current available detection tests—chest x-rays and sputum tests—are not always accurate in finding early lung cancer.

Advanced Reading

Malignant Mesothelioma

Overview

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Mediastinoscopy
A mediastinoscopy is a surgical procedure performed to examine the mediastinum - the space behind the sternum (breastbone) in the middle of the chest that separates the two lungs.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Multiple Myeloma

Overview

Anatomy of the Bone
A typical bone in your body contains three types of tissue—a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like inner tissue, and smooth tissue at the ends.
Multiple Myeloma
Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain white blood cells called plasma cells.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Bone Biopsy
A bone biopsy is a procedure in which bone samples are removed to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
Bone Marrow Biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy involves removing tissue from the red bone marrow to be sent to the lab for microscopic examination.
Bone Scan
A bone scan is used to examine the various bones of the skeleton to identify areas of physical and chemical changes in bone.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissues
Magnetic resonance imaging uses a combination of a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of structures within the body.

Deciding on Treatment

Treatments for Bone Disorders
Detailed information on the most common treatments used for bone disorders, including radiation therapy, surgery, amputation, bone graft, osteotomy, and arthroplasty (total joint replacement)
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects
Overview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary medicine is used in conjunction with other therapies. It usually serves to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Alternative medicine is used alone, without standard treatment.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Advanced Reading

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Overview

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Detailed information on non-Hodgkins lymphoma, including symptoms, causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
AIDS-Related Malignancies
People who have AIDS are much more likely to get certain types of cancer than people without the disease.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Bone Marrow Biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy involves removing tissue from the red bone marrow to be sent to the lab for microscopic examination.

Surgery

Other Treatments

Bone Marrow Transplantation
Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects
Overview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary medicine is used in conjunction with other therapies. It usually serves to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Alternative medicine is used alone, without standard treatment.
Immunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Immunotherapy, also called biological therapy, is a treatment that uses your body’s own immune system to fight non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Just as the immune system fights infection by destroying germ cells that can cause an infection, it can also recognize and destroy cancer cells that cause non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Advanced Reading

Oral Cancer

Overview

Oral Cancer
Ninety percent of oral cancer cases are caused by tobacco use. Oral cancer can affect the lips, teeth, gums, and lining of the mouth.
Oral Cancer and Tobacco
All tobacco products, from cigarettes to snuff, contain toxins, carcinogens, and nicotine, an addictive substance.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy

Other Treatments

Overview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary medicine is used in conjunction with other therapies. It usually serves to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Alternative medicine is used alone, without standard treatment.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Advanced Reading

Ovarian Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area
The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer can develop in one of three types—the first, on the surface of the ovary; the second, in the cells that form the eggs; the third, in the cells that produce female hormones.

Genetics of Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer as Part of Lynch Syndrome
A woman with this type of hereditary colon cancer is at increased risk for ovarian cancer.
Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)
The risk for ovarian cancer and skin cancer is increased with basal cell nevus syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
People with this syndrome have dark moles around the mouth, nose, and eyes, as well as multiple polyps in the intestines.
Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1/BRCA2)
A woman with this syndrome may develop breast cancer before age 50 and is at higher risk for developing cancer in both breasts or in both the breasts and ovaries.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Pelvic Ultrasound
Ultrasound, or sound wave technology, is used to examine the organs and structures in the female pelvis.

Deciding on Treatment

Chemotherapy
Detailed information on chemotherapy for treatment of gynecological cancers
Surgery
Detailed information the most common types of surgery to treat cancer, including biopsy, endoscopy, laparoscopy, laparotomy, laser surgery, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, and excisional surgery
Hysterectomy
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Different portions of the uterus, as well as other organs, may be removed at the same time.
Radiation Therapy for Ovarian Cancer
Radiation therapy kills cancer cells with the use of high energy X-rays. The type most often used for ovarian cancer is called external beam radiation.
About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Pancreatic Cancer

Overview

Pancreas
Detailed anatomical description of human pancreas, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
Pancreatic Cancer
Detailed information on pancreatic cancer, including types of benign tumors in the pancreas, malignant pancreatic cancers, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
Ampullary Cancer
Ampullary cancer, or ampullary carcinoma, is a life-threatening cancer that forms in a body part called the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum, where the pancreatic and bile ducts release their secretions into the intestines.
Carcinoid Tumor
Carcinoid tumor is a rare type of tumor that grows slowly.
Islet Cell Carcinoma
Islet cell carcinoma is a type of cancer in which tumors form in the pancreas

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Abdominal Ultrasound
Abdominal ultrasound is a procedure that uses sound wave technology to assess the organs, structures, and blood flow inside the abdomen.
Computed Tomography (CT) Scan of the Pancreas
CT/CAT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays and are often used to assess the pancreas for injuries, abnormalities, or disease.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure in which x-ray and an endoscope - a long, flexible, lighted tube - are used to assess and treat problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas.
Pancreas Scan
A pancreas scan uses nuclear radiology to search for, and sometime treat, tumors in the pancreas.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
PET is a type of nuclear medicine procedure that measures metabolic activity of the cells of body tissues. Used mostly in patients with brain or heart conditions and cancer, PET helps to visualize the biochemical changes taking place in the body.

Other Treatments

Overview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary medicine is used in conjunction with other therapies. It usually serves to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Alternative medicine is used alone, without standard treatment.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Penile Cancer

Overview

Overview of Urogenital Disorders
Detailed information on urology, the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract in both genders and the genital tract or reproductive system in the male, and urogenital disorders
Am I At Risk for Penile Cancer?
Doctors are not sure what exactly causes penile cancer, but there are some possible risk factors, including smoking and advanced age.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Pituitary Cancer

Overview

Pituitary Gland
Detailed information on the anatomy and function of the pituitary gland
Hormones and the Endocrine System
Detailed information on hormones and their role in the workings of the endocrine system
Pituitary Tumors
Detailed information on pituitary gland tumors, including symptoms, causes, types, diagnosis, and treatment

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Brain
CT scans of the brain can provide detailed information about brain tissue and brain structures than standard x-rays of the head, thus providing more information related to injuries and/or diseases of the brain.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Spine and Brain
MRI may be used to examine the brain and/or spinal cord for injuries or the presence of structural abnormalities or certain other conditions, including tumors or aneurysms.

Deciding on Treatment

Radiosurgery
Radiosurgery uses focused beams of radiation to treat cancerous tissues without a surgical incision or opening. The treatment is called "surgery" because creates a result similar to an actual surgical procedure.
Overview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary medicine is used in conjunction with other therapies. It usually serves to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Alternative medicine is used alone, without standard treatment.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Prostate Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of the Prostate Gland
The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the neck of a man’s bladder and urethra—the tube that carries urine from the bladder.
Prostate Cancer
In the past 30 years, the five-year survival rate for all stages of prostate cancer combined has increased from 73 percent to nearly 100 percent.
Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer
Detailed information on the risk factors for prostate cancer
The Genetics of Prostate Cancer
The majority of cases of prostate cancer are sporadic, which means that one person in the family developed prostate cancer by chance at a typical age for this cancer. In these cases, other male relatives have little to no increased risk of developing prostate cancer.
Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
Early prostate cancer usually has no specific signs or symptoms—that's why prostate cancer screening is so important.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Diagnostic and Evaluation Procedures for Prostate Cancer
Your doctor may evaluate possible prostate problems with an annual physical and a digital rectal exam or a test for prostate-specific antigen.
Prostate Biopsy
A prostate biopsy is a procedure in which tissue samples are removed with a special needle to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
Prostate/Rectal Sonogram
A sonogram uses ultrasound technology to allow quick visualization of the prostate and related structures from outside the body. It may be used to examine the prostate gland for evidence of cancer.
Staging of Prostate Cancer
When prostate cancer is diagnosed, tests are performed to determine how much cancer is present, and if the cancer has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body.
Grading of Prostate Cancer
The cancer grading system is based on a number range. The lower the number, the lower the grade, and the slower the cancer is growing.

Deciding on Treatment

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer
Chemotherapy may be used when the cancer has spread outside of the prostate gland, or it may be used in combination with other therapies.

Surgery

Surgery for Prostate Cancer
Long-term, serious side effects of prostate surgery are somewhat less common now than in the past, as new surgical methods continue to be introduced.
Radical Prostatectomy
A prostatectomy is a surgical procedure for the partial or complete removal of the prostate. It may be performed to treat prostatic cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)
A transurethral resection of the prostate is a surgical procedure that uses a tiny instrument to remove portions of the prostate gland through the penis, requiring no external incision.

Other Treatments

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer
The goal of hormone therapy is to lower the level of male hormones in the body, particularly testosterone.
Expectant Therapy
Expectant therapy is to "watch and wait" while carefully observing and monitoring the prostate cancer.
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Sometimes called antiangiogenic therapy, this treatment may prevent the growth of cancer by blocking the formation of new blood vessels.
Herbal Remedies For Prostate Cancer
Talk with your health care provider before using any type of dietary or herbal supplements in the treatment or prevention of prostate cancer.
Overview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary medicine is used in conjunction with other therapies. It usually serves to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Alternative medicine is used alone, without standard treatment.

Managing Side Effects

About Side Effects

Dealing with Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction is when a man is not able to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for his sexual needs. It's often a side effect of the treatments for prostate cancer. Some men have chronic, complete erectile dysfunction, called impotence. Others have partial or brief erections.
Psychosocial Factors
When a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer, it's normal for him to feel scared, angry, or depressed.
For Family Members Coping with Prostate Cancer
What can you do to help the man in your life with prostate cancer? Keep the lines of communication open.
General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Prevention and Screening

Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer
Detailed information on the risk factors for prostate cancer
Prostate Cancer in African-American Men
African-American men may have the highest rate of prostate cancer incidence in the world, according to the National Cancer Institute.

Advanced Reading

Skin Cancer - Melanoma

Overview

Anatomy of the Skin
The skin is the body's largest organ. It serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.
Melanoma
Detailed information on melanoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, risk factors, and treatment
Facts About Skin Cancer
Statistics relating to skin cancer
The Genetics of Skin Cancer
Up to half of all Americans 65 and older will have at least one bout of skin cancer. The most common types of skin cancer in the United States are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. These are generally the result of sun exposure.
Intraocular Melanoma
Melanoma is a serious kind of skin cancer. This cancer involves cells called melanocytes. You also have melanocytes in your eyes. When these cells become cancerous, the condition is called intraocular melanoma.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Diagnosis and Staging of Melanoma
Detailed information on diagnosis and staging of melanoma, including use of excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Sentinel Node Mapping for Melanoma
When you have melanoma, it’s crucial to know whether it has spread from its original site to other places in your body. This helps determine the stage of your cancer, an important step in figuring out the best treatment approach.

Deciding on Treatment

Treatment for Skin Cancer
Detailed information on the most common treatments for skin cancer, including surgery, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, electrochemotherapy, biological therapy, and photodynamic therapy

Other Treatments

Overview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary medicine is used in conjunction with other therapies. It usually serves to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Alternative medicine is used alone, without standard treatment.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Prevention and Screening

Other Causes and Risk Factors For Skin Cancer
Detailed information on causes and risk factors for skin cancer, including heredity and environment
Preventing Skin Cancer
Detailed information on skin cancer prevention
Skin Self-Examination
Detailed information on skin self-examination, including the importance of skin self-examination in skin cancer prevention and a step-by-step guide
Sunscreens
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and the increased risk of skin cancer, including the use of sunscreen as one skin cancer prevention method
Ultraviolet Radiation
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and exposure categories according the Ultraviolet (UV) Index
UV Exposure Categories
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and exposure categories according the Ultraviolet (UV) Index
Effects of Ultraviolet (UV) Exposure
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and the increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, cataracts, and immune system damage

Skin Cancer - Non-Melanoma

Overview

Anatomy of the Skin
The skin is the body's largest organ. It serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.
Facts About Skin Cancer
Statistics relating to skin cancer
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Detailed information on basal cell carcinoma, including risk factors and how the disease develops
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Detailed information on squamous cell carcinoma, including risk factors and places this type of cancer is typically found on the body
Other Types of Skin Cancer: Kaposi Sarcoma
Detailed information on Kaposi sarcoma
Merkel Cell Cancer
Detailed information on merkel cell cancer, including diagnosis and treatment
Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Detailed information on cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Actinic Keratosis (A Precancerous Condition)
Detailed information on actinic keratosis, including causes and treatment
Other Causes and Risk Factors For Skin Cancer
Detailed information on causes and risk factors for skin cancer, including heredity and environment
The Genetics of Skin Cancer
Up to half of all Americans 65 and older will have at least one bout of skin cancer. The most common types of skin cancer in the United States are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. These are generally the result of sun exposure.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy

Deciding on Treatment

Treatment for Skin Cancer
Detailed information on the most common treatments for skin cancer, including surgery, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, electrochemotherapy, biological therapy, and photodynamic therapy

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Prevention and Screening

Other Causes and Risk Factors For Skin Cancer
Detailed information on causes and risk factors for skin cancer, including heredity and environment
How Can I Prevent or Detect Skin Cancer?
Stay out of the sun when your shadow is shorter than you are (usually 10 a.m. - 3 p.m.). Avoiding excessive sun exposure is important in preventing skin cancers.
Preventing Skin Cancer
Detailed information on skin cancer prevention
Skin Self-Examination
Detailed information on skin self-examination, including the importance of skin self-examination in skin cancer prevention and a step-by-step guide
Sunscreens
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and the increased risk of skin cancer, including the use of sunscreen as one skin cancer prevention method
Ultraviolet Radiation
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and exposure categories according the Ultraviolet (UV) Index
UV Exposure Categories
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and exposure categories according the Ultraviolet (UV) Index
Effects of Ultraviolet (UV) Exposure
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and the increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, cataracts, and immune system damage
Treating Sun-Damaged Skin
Detailed information on treating sun-damaged skin

Advanced Reading

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Advanced Reading

Stomach Cancer

Overview

Stomach Cancer
Detailed information on stomach cancer, including symptoms, causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Helicobacter Pylori
Detailed information on helicobacter pylori, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Carcinoid Tumor
Carcinoid tumor is a rare type of tumor that grows slowly.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Barium Swallow
During this procedure, a mixture of barium and water is swallowed just before an x-ray. The barium is used to highlight damage or abnormalities in the upper gastrointestinal tract, including the pharnyx, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic procedure used to diagnose structural or functional abnormalities of the esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum.
Upper Gastrointestinal Series
An upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) is an x-ray examination of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Testicular Cancer

Overview

Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer is one of the most curable forms of cancer, but the symptoms may resemble other conditions or medical problems.
Sexual Relationships and Testicular Cancer
Whether the changes you experience are short-term or long lasting, you can find ways to feel good about yourself and to be intimate with your partner. Remember to be patient and give yourself time. Be creative.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Ultrasound
Detailed information on ultrasonograpy, also called sonography including information on how the procedure is performed
Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Getting a Second Opinion on Cancer Treatment
It can be hard to decide on a treatment for your type of cancer. Before starting treatment, you may want to have a second doctor review your diagnosis and treatment options.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Thymus Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of the Endocrine System
The endocrine system includes not only the pancreas—the organ involved in the development of diabetes—but also the pituitary, thyroid, and other glands.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Mediastinoscopy
A mediastinoscopy is a surgical procedure performed to examine the mediastinum - the space behind the sternum (breastbone) in the middle of the chest that separates the two lungs.

Deciding on Treatment

Overview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Complementary medicine is used in conjunction with other therapies. It usually serves to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Alternative medicine is used alone, without standard treatment.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Thyroid Cancer

Overview

Thyroid Gland
Detailed information on the thyroid gland, including anatomy and function
Thyroid Tumor Overview
Detailed information on thyroid tumors, including symptoms and treatment
Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC)
This rare type of thyroid cancer has several forms, depending on the mutations that cause it. Most cases of medullary thyroid cancer, though, are sporadic—they occur without any family history of thyroid cancer.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Thyroid Function Tests
Detailed information on the most common types of thyroid function tests

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Urethral Cancer

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Biopsy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Uterine Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area
The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.
Uterine Cancer
Cancer of the uterus usually occurs around the time menopause begins. The occasional reappearance of bleeding should not be considered simply part of menopause, but should be checked by a doctor.
Uterine Fibroids
Some estimates say that 20 to 50 percent of women of reproductive age have fibroids, although not all are diagnosed. In most cases, fibroids are benign.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Diagnostic Procedures for Cancer: Overview
Detailed information on the most common diagnostic procedures for cancer
Endometrial Biopsy
An endometrial biopsy is a procedure performed to obtain a small tissue sample from the lining of the uterus.
Dilation and Curettage (D and C)
A dilation and curettage procedure, also called a D and C, is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated so that the cervical canal and uterine lining can be scraped with a spoon-shaped instrument to remove abnormal tissues.
Pelvic Ultrasound
Ultrasound, or sound wave technology, is used to examine the organs and structures in the female pelvis.
Hysteroscopy
Hysteroscopy is the visual examination of the canal of the cervix and interior of the uterus using a thin, lighted, flexible tube called a hysteroscope.
Grading and Staging of Cancer
Grading and staging cancer helps determine the best treatment.

Deciding on Treatment

Chemotherapy
Detailed information on chemotherapy for treatment of gynecological cancers
Immunotherapy/Biological Therapy
Detailed information on biological therapy, also called immunotherapy, biological response modifier therapy, or biotherapy
Radiation Therapy
Radiation is often used to treat prostate cancer that is still confined to the prostate gland, or has spread only to nearby tissue.
Surgery
Detailed information the most common types of surgery to treat cancer, including biopsy, endoscopy, laparoscopy, laparotomy, laser surgery, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, and excisional surgery
Hysterectomy
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Different portions of the uterus, as well as other organs, may be removed at the same time.
Hormone Therapy
Detailed information on hormone therapy as one type of cancer treatment
About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Advanced Reading

Vaginal Cancer

Overview

Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area
The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.
Vaginal Cancer
Cancer of the vagina is rare. Certain factors thought to raise the risk for this type of cancer include advancing age, history of cervical cancer, and infection with the human papillomavirus.

Understanding Your Diagnosis

Diagnostic Procedures for Cancer: Overview
Detailed information on the most common diagnostic procedures for cancer
Pap Test
A Pap test is a screening test to collect and microscopically examine cells taken from the cervix.
Colposcopy
Colposcopy is a procedure that uses an instrument with a magnifying lens and a light, called a colposcope, to examine the cervix (opening to the uterus) and vagina for abnormalities.
Grading and Staging of Cancer
Grading and staging cancer helps determine the best treatment.

Treatment Decisions

Chemotherapy
Detailed information on chemotherapy for treatment of gynecological cancers
Radiation Therapy
Radiation is often used to treat prostate cancer that is still confined to the prostate gland, or has spread only to nearby tissue.
Surgery
Detailed information the most common types of surgery to treat cancer, including biopsy, endoscopy, laparoscopy, laparotomy, laser surgery, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, and excisional surgery
About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Other Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Cancer FAQs

Frequently Asked Questions About Vaginal Cancer
Most women diagnosed with vaginal cancer are older than 60. It rarely occurs in women younger than 40.

Advanced Reading

Vulvar Cancer

Overview

Vulvar Cancer
Nearly 90 percent of vulvar cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Melanoma is the second most common type of vulvar cancer.
Am I At Risk for Vulvar Cancer?
Doctors don’t know what causes vulvar cancer, but they have identified many possible risk factors, including advancing age and infection with HPV.
What Can I Do If I Am At Risk for Vulvar Cancer?
The best thing you can do to prevent vulvar cancer is to lower the risks you can control and to get regular gynecological exams. In some cases, doctors also recommend doing self-exams.

Managing Side Effects

General Nutrition Guidelines During Cancer Treatment
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
Fatigue: Management
Fatigue can come and go or stay constant for a while. Fatigue from chemotherapy tends to occur a few days after the treatment, peaks, and then gets better before the next treatment. Fatigue from radiation may not happen right away.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

Anemia and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Hair Loss and Chemotherapy
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Infection and Chemotherapy
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Skin/Nails and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Appetite / Taste Changes and Chemotherapy
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Nausea and Vomiting with Chemotherapy
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Nutritional Management of Nausea/Vomiting During Cancer Treatment
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Diarrhea and Chemotherapy
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
Constipation and Chemotherapy
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Management of Constipation During Cancer Treatment
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Managing Mucositis in Children
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

Radiation Treatment Side Effects

Radiation Therapy and Cancer Treatment
Detailed information on radiation therapy, one type of cancer therapy

Cancer FAQs

Frequently Asked Questions About Vulvar Cancer
Risk factors for vulvar cancer include smoking, infection with HPV, and advancing age.

Advanced Reading

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Carcinoid Tumor
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Tracheal Tumor
A tracheal tumor is an abnormal growth that forms in your trachea, or windpipe.