Orthopedic Conditions and Disorders

Back and Neck

Torticollis (Wryneck)
Torticollis is a spasm of the neck muscles. It is usually caused by vigorous movement or injury—or by sleeping in an awkward position.
Whiplash Injury
Whiplash is an injury caused by the neck bending forcibly forward and then backward, or vice versa. The injury usually involves the muscles, discs, nerves, and tendons in the neck.
Kyphosis
Kyphosis is a forward curvature of the spine. It is a type of spinal deformity and should not be confused with poor posture.
What to Do About a Pain in the Neck
Most neck pain is caused by sleeping on a bed that’s too soft, poor posture, stress, neck strains or degenerative joint disease that occurs when the joints of the neck become inflamed or a disc pushes outward from its normal position.
What Is Spinal Stenosis?
Spinal stenosis is a condition in which the spinal canal narrows and pinches the nerves, resulting in back and leg pain.
Massage Therapy for Back Pain
More than half of American adults seek medical treatment for back pain at some point in their lives.
Help Your Back Work for You
Your back is important to almost every move you make, but you probably won't realize that until you hurt it.
5 Exercises to Prevent an Aching Neck
Although neck pain can be the result of stress, age or injury, it is most often associated with poor posture.
Watch that Backpack Load
When your child acts as if she’s carrying the weight of the world on her shoulders, maybe you should check her backpack.
Scoliosis
A spine affected by scoliosis shows a sideways curvature and a rotation of the vertebrae, giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.
Low Back Pain
Low back pain can range from mild, dull, and annoying to persistent, severe, and disabling pain. Pain in the lower back can restrict mobility and interfere with normal functioning.
Neck Pain and Problems
Neck pain can result from many different causes—injury to muscles, tendons, or ligaments; arthritis; a herniated disc; or a tumor.
Nerve Blocks
Neural blockades, commonly called nerve blocks, are procedures that can help prevent or manage many different types of intractable pain.
Therapeutic Pain Blocks
If you don't get relief from standard pain relievers, you doctor may suggest injecting pain-relieving medicine into the site of the affected nerve.
Treating Pain with Spinal Cord Stimulators
Spinal cord stimulation is one way to manage various types of pain. A spinal cord stimulator is an implanted device that sends low levels of electricity directly into the spinal cord.
Intradiscal Procedures for Back Pain
When the disks themselves are causing back pain or pain radiating to the legs, doctors sometimes do an intradiscal procedure to try to relieve the pain.
OTC Pain Medications and Their Risks
OTC pain relievers can be divided into just two main types: acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs.
TENS Therapy
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, or TENS, offers pain relief for some people by sending low-voltage electrical current into the body.

Shoulder and Elbow

Common Injuries of the Shoulder
The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body, but because of this flexibility, it is not very stable and is easily injured.
Shoulder Dislocation
The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated major joint of the body—often caused by a significant force that separates the shoulder joint's ball away from the joint's socket.
Shoulder Tendonitis
Shoulder tendonitis often occurs in sports that require the arm to move over the head repeatedly, such as in baseball, weight lifting, and racket sports.
Rotator Cuff Injury
An injury to the rotator cuff, such as a tear, may happen suddenly when falling on an outstretched hand or develop over time because of repetitive activities.
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Cubital tunnel syndrome feels similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in your elbow. The condition may occur if you frequently bend your elbows, constantly lean on your elbows, or sustain a direct injury to the area.
Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)
The pain of tennis elbow is caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist backward away from the palm.
Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer's and Baseball Elbow)
Other activities that can cause this condition include carrying a heavy suitcase, chopping wood, and using a chainsaw.
Burners and Stingers Syndrome in Young Athletes
Burners and stingers syndrome is usually caused by an injury during practice or competition. The most typical injury occurs when a youngster falls or takes a blow to the neck or shoulder.

Hand and Wrist

Hand Pain and Problems
Common hand problems include arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and ganglion cysts.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Women develop carpal tunnel syndrome three times more frequently than men. It usually occurs only in adults.
Overview of Hand Surgery
Many different types of surgeries can be performed on the hand, depending on the underlying cause of the problem.
Diagnosing Hand Conditions
In some cases, a diagnosis can be made simply based on a physical examination. In other cases, though, tests may be needed to help confirm the diagnosis.
Dupuytren's Contracture
This disease usually begins with a thickening of the skin in the palm of the hand. This may develop into a hard lump or thick band that eventually causes the fingers to contract.
Carpal Tunnel Release
Carpal tunnel release is a surgery that’s used to treat and potentially heal the painful condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome.

Hip

Hip Fracture
A hip fracture is classified by the specific area of the break and the type of break(s) in the bone. It is a serious injury and requires immediate medical attention.
Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, is a chronic, degenerative, joint disease that affects mostly middle-aged and older adults.
Sciatica
Sciatica is a pain that originates along the sciatic nerve, which extends from the back of the pelvis down the back of the thigh.
Evaluation Procedures
To help the orthopedist determine your treatment, you'll need a physical exam, a medical history profile, and a description of symptoms.
Treatment Plans
For most orthopedic disorders and injuries, more than one form of treatment may be appropriate.
Is It Time for a New Joint?
Millions of us struggle with pain and loss of motion because of joint damage caused by arthritis. If other treatments fail to offer relief, you may wonder about turning in your worn-out joints for new ones.
Arthroscopy
Orthopedic surgeons use arthroscopy to diagnose and treat joint problems. An arthroscope is a small, tube shaped instrument that is used to look inside a joint.
Joint Replacement Surgery
Joint replacement is a surgical procedure to remove and replace an arthritic or damaged joint with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis.
Hip Replacement Surgery
Hip replacement surgery is a procedure in which a damaged hip joint is replaced with an artificial hip joint. It is most commonly recommended as a treatment for severe osteoarthritis or damage due to fracture.

Knee

Knee Pain and Problems
Common knee problems include sprains, strains, torn cartilage, and arthritis.
Torn Meniscus
Meniscus tears can occur during a rotating movement while bearing weight, such as when twisting the upper leg while the foot stays in one place during sports and other activities.
Ligament Injuries to the Knee
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common ligaments to be injured. Learn about the four major ligaments of the knee.
Evaluation Procedures
To help the orthopedist determine your treatment, you'll need a physical exam, a medical history profile, and a description of symptoms.
Treatment Plans
For most orthopedic disorders and injuries, more than one form of treatment may be appropriate.
Arthroscopy
Orthopedic surgeons use arthroscopy to diagnose and treat joint problems. An arthroscope is a small, tube shaped instrument that is used to look inside a joint.
Joint Replacement Surgery
Joint replacement is a surgical procedure to remove and replace an arthritic or damaged joint with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis.
Knee Replacement Surgery
When a knee is severely damaged by disease or injury, an artificial knee replacement may be considered.

Leg and Foot

Foot Pain and Problems
Foot pain is often caused by improper foot function. Improperly fitted shoes can worsen and, in some cases, cause foot problems.
Essential Foot Care
Years of wear and tear can be hard on your feet, as can shoes that don’t fit properly. Injuries and disorders of the feet can affect your mobility.
Foot Care for Walkers
Wearing the appropriate type of shoe is the most important part of foot care for walkers.
Bone Spurs Are a Thorny Problem
Scientists believe bone spurs occur because of osteoarthritis or when the body tries to heal itself after a trauma by replacing bone.
Are Feet at Fault for Back, Hip, and Knee Woes?
If you are having problems with back pain, shin splints, knees or hips, look to your feet. Although these ailments might seem totally unrelated to one another, they can sometimes be linked to problems that start with your feet and how they're built, foot experts say.
Stretches for Your Lower Legs
Stretching can keep your lower legs limber and your joints pain free.
Fractures
A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture occurs, it is classified as either open or closed.
Stress Fractures in Young Athletes
Stress fractures occur when muscles are too tired to take on the impact of exercise, and the bones absorb the added stress. When those bones become too strained, they develop a tiny break known as a stress fracture.

Bone Tumors

Benign

Chondroblastoma
A chondroblastoma is a rare type of benign bone tumor that originates from cartilage.
Enchondroma
Enchondromas are the most common type of hand tumor. Although they may affect people of any age, they are most common between ages 10 and 20.
Giant Cell Tumor
Giant cell tumors most often appear in the knee, but they can also involve the bones of the arms and the legs, or the flat bones such as the breastbone or pelvis.
Osteochondroma
Osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone near the end of the bone near the growth plate.

Cancer

Chondrosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur, arm, pelvis, knee, and spine.
Ewing Sarcoma in Adults
Ewing sarcoma can occur in any bone, but is most often found in the extremities and can involve muscle and the soft tissues around the tumor site.
Multiple Myeloma
Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain white blood cells called plasma cells.
Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma usually affects the long bones around the knee. It occurs most often in children, adolescents, and young adults.

Other Bone Conditions

Fibrous Dysplasia
Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which bone expands because of abnormal development of fibrous tissue.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle-bone disease because it is characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.
Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation or swelling of bone tissue that is usually the result of an infection.
Paget Disease of the Bone
Paget disease is the most common bone disorder after osteoporosis in people older than 50.
Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder in which the parathyroid glands produce too much hormone, which can result in the loss of bone tissue.
Avascular Necrosis
Detailed information on avascular necrosis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment